Observance and comprehension of the technology of the powerful forces of Nature involved in the Pistol Shrimp's hunting techniques, provide the knowledge and ability to comprehend the fact that a compressed air equalizer self-refilling compressed air tank is a reality.
Among the fascinating creatures of the deep is a finger-size shrimp with an oversize claw — resembling a boxing glove. This species of shrimp uses this special claw to stun its prey by snapping the claw shut which initiates a series of events that produces a sharp cracking sound as seawater is accelerated to velocities causing inertial cavitation, (a process where a void or bubble in a liquid rapidly collapses), producing a shock wave.
Such inertial cavitation often occurs in pumps, piping, propellers, impellers, and in the vascular tissues of plants. This phenomena is avoided like the plague by standard engineering concepts applicable to the movement of fluids because of the destructive impact such implosions cause to metal fluid-containment piping, chambers, and spinning devices.
View the Pistol Shrimp video:
Awesome HD video of the cavitation bubble:
Download Video: http://nrgnair.com/MPT/02AIR/pistol.shrimp.mpg
Inertial cavitation takes place when a vacuum "bubble" is created, subsequently setting in motion Nature's forces to fill the created vacuum.
Video analysis of the cycle: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ONQlTMUYCW4
When a fluid, water, seawater, air, is accelerated above a certain speed and is propelled through the same static fluid, the accelerated mass of fluid travels at such a differential speed relative to the surrounding fluid that a vacuum is formed in the wake of the high speed fluid. Nature, on Earth, abhors a vacuum and instantly causes the static fluid surrounding the vacuum “bubble” to fill the vacuum. As the matter of the static fluid surrounding the vacuum bubble accelerates into the bubble, the speed of the in-rushing fluid exceeds the speed of sound and an audible sonic-boom occurs. Also, because of the mass of the in-rushing fluid, a compression cycle takes place driving the pressure and temperature in the bubble to astounding levels. This reaction, in the bubble in the wake of the accelerated seawater jetted from the claw of the Pistol Shrimp, has been observed, and the temperature generated by the event has been measured up to an incredible 18,000 degrees Fahrenheit.
Sequence of actions involved when "Pistol Shrimp claw-created" inertial cavitation cycle takes place within 300 microseconds --
1. Claw creates a pressure zone by causing a seawater "jetting" action which accelerates a quantity of seawater to a velocity high enough to cause inertial cavitation (speeds up to 62 miles/hour (100 km/hr));
2. Molecules of seawater rush into the vacuum "bubble" behind the pressure wave at speeds greater than the speed of sound, causing an audible sonic BOOM;
3. As seawater particles exceed the speed of sound, compression takes place in the "bubble" space;
4. Compression of the seawater causes an instantaneous release of atomic energy in which temperatures above 18,000 degrees Fahrenheit and enormous pressure is generated, creating a visible plasma arc, which in turn, causes another compression.
A team of European scientists revealed that the bubble emits not only sound but a flash of light — indicating the extreme temperature and pressure created inside the bubbles.
Pistol Shrimp flv URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eKPrGxB1Kzc
Comprehension: The foregoing natural technology, revealed by the ability of the Pistol Shrimp, can be put to work to enable the utilization of the Sun’s and the Earth’s greatest energy resource — the AIR.
Compression of air takes place when a large volume of air is stuffed into a small container. Jamming all of the particulate matter composing the air into a small container, drives the matter particles much closer together, which brings the magnetic fields of those particles so close together that violent interaction takes place causing a release of heat energy in order to reach equilibrium at the new pressure. This heat is an attribute of the heat energy stored in the air by the Sun.
If "free expansion" of compressed air is put to work in the right context, the attribute can be converted into an advantageous source of sheer raw brute power.
Scuba tank filling stations know all about it: when filling a heavy duty, high pressure, safety-factor-of-167%, well made, correctly maintained scuba tank TOO FAST, you had better be hiding around the corner. Scuba cylinders are hydrostatically safety tested to a pressure 1.67 (167%) (5/3) times the Maximum Available Working Pressure (MAWP) rating stamped on the tank.
For example: Scuba tank stamped pressure rating is 3300 psig, this tank would be hydrostatically tested to a pressure of 5500 psi. (1.67 x 3300 = 5511).
Hydrostatic testing measures the ability of the scuba tank to
i.e., if the cylinder volume increased 100 ml at test pressure, after test pressure is removed, the tank should recover to less than 10 ml larger volume than the pre-test volume. The MAWP should be strictly observed to prevent frequent tank expansion and contraction which causes metal fatigue, fractures, and eventual failure of the pressure vessel.
The standard engineering concepts behind pressure equalization, presently being taught in universities, is that there is no "work" done because the actual instantaneous temperature is discounted and NOT factored into the math as though there was no (heat) temperature change (Joule's first law). But that train of thought is incorrect, because ALL of the factors in the cycle are not considered. Therefore, the university taught dogma focuses only on “complete equalization,” where there is no NET temperature change.
(Get rid of the extra heat of compression [which can be captured and used] generated in the work of compression and ignore its value in the mathematics). [“It is difficult to get a man to understand something when his job depends on not understanding it.” Upton Sinclair]
Ask anyone who has filled scuba tanks, about the concern for big temperature change. Dangerous temperature change. Temperature change caused just by moving compressed air, at ambient temperature, from a big tank into a smaller tank also at ambient temperature. If the procedure is performed too quickly, there is a very real danger that the smaller tank or the valve could fail, due to sudden extreme high pressure, putting life and limb in great jeopardy. Since a Scuba tank is not scored (segmented) like the old-style fragmentation grenade, the tank can only rupture. The valve on the tank could be blown off as a missile, and thereby convert the tank into a jet propelled missile until the air pressure inside the tank is expelled.
The reason for this dangerous circumstance is based upon the characteristics of suddenly compressing air by injecting a jet of high-pressure air. A huge amount of heat energy is produced. Engineering professors drill it into the minds of their students as a matter crucial to their acquisition of an Engineering Certificate, that the heat energy produced during compression shall not be considered when determining the efficiency of compressed air.
When lightning occurs, the air through which the lightning travels is instantaneously superheated to enormously high temperature. The heat from the lightning superheats the air in close proximity, and instantaneously causes compression of the air to such a degree that the matter in the air blasts away at extreme velocities which creates a vacuum bubble, the presence of which, Nature abhors, and instantly propels the matter in the surrounding air into the vacuum bubble with very little resistance. The matter particles rushing to fill the vacuum, exceed the speed of sound, thereby, breaking the sound barrier and causing a loud sonic BOOM. We call it thunder. The heat of the lightning causes compression of the air surrounding the high-voltage – high-heat electric arc.
HEAT compresses AIR. Compressing AIR releases HEAT energy resident in the AIR.
Heat energy resident in the air is stored there by the Sun. For FREE.
All of the heat energy, supplied in the form of electricity to an electric motor, used to mechanically power the compressor pump, is always lost into the surrounding atmosphere, along with most of the heat of compression released by the air during compression. These energy wasting losses are the result of present inefficient engineering configurations that discount the heat that could be captured and put to work as additional heat energy resident in the compressed air.
80 years ago, when compressed air power systems were used extensively for hauling freight, and many other purposes, engineering text books explained the fact that all of the heat of compression is lost into the ambient atmosphere.
There are sources that can be found documenting the fact that all compression work becomes heat, and that the “compression heat” generated by the operation of electro-mechanical devices performing the compression, does NOT directly add energy to the heat already in the air before compression, which was put there by the Sun. The Sun’s gift of heat in the atmosphere, is the true energy source behind the force of expansion.
Validating sources of this fact:
1. Barnard, William N., Frank O. Ellenwood, and Clarence F. Hirshfeld. Heat-Power Engineering. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley, 1926. Vol. I: 148.
2. Chodzko, A.E. "The Two-Pipe System of Air Compression." Modern Machinery January 1899.
3. Simons, Theodore. Compressed Air. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1914. 113-123.
4. Thorkelson, H.J. Air Compression and Transmission. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1913. 6-7, 16-17.
5. Unwin, William Cawthorne. On the Development and Transmission of Power from Central Stations. London: Longmans, 1894. "Case of Isothermal Compression".
6. Warring, R.H. Pneumatic Handbook. 6th ed. Houston: Gulf Publishing Company, 1982. 50.
7. Shone, Dick. "A Different View of Compressed Air." The South African Mechanical Engineer 35 (1985)
"There is nothing abnormal to an efficiency greater than 1, when reheating is used; this will occur (regardless of pipe and other friction) whenever the temperature of reheating is higher than the temperature of compression."
– A.E. Chodzko
Instead of throwing away the heat energy created by the operation of mechanical devices performing the compression, (electric motors; engines; compressor pumps), capture that heat, as it is released by the devices employed to cause compression, and put that heat into the compressed air storage tank in order to add that heat energy to the heat energy resident in the compressed air. In many applications, just capturing the work-energy heat used to compress air, can increase the usable work-energy of the compressed air in the storage tank to a level greater than a Coefficient of Performance (COP) of 1, 2, or even 3.
COP: The Coefficient of Performance is calculated by dividing the amount of heat (or work energy in BTU) produced by a system, divided by the amount of work energy (in BTU) input from an external source. If the output of a system is 56,000 BTUH (56,000/3.412 = 16.4kW), (one watt = 3.412BTU/hour), and the mechanical power input devices, (electric motor, engine, compressor pump) consume 4.82kW, the COP is: 16.4/4.82 = 3.4.
In simple terms, you pay for 4.82kW to operate the work energy input devices, and you get 16.4kW work energy output. That means you get 16.4 – 4.82 = 11.58kW for free. (You don’t have to pay for those kW)
By exploiting the knowledge of compression, the power of a vacuum, and how to use that knowledge and power, the compressed air already inside a compressed air storage tank can be used to keep the storage tank full through a process that can be described as “self-refilling.”
The “sound barrier,” in actuality, is the speed that must be attained by matter, — airplane, missile, water, air — where a vacuum bubble is created in the moving matter’s wake. When the vacuum bubble forms, the matter around it rushes into the vacuum without resistance of any other matter and therefore attains super-sonic speeds. When the matter rushing into the vacuum surpasses the “sound barrier,” a sonic BOOM occurs. An IMPLOSION. This is the sequence heard when an airplane goes super-sonic, or where a lightning arc super-heats the surrounding air so fast that it blasts away from the heat creating a vacuum bubble and then cooler air rushes into the vacuum.
The vacuum causes very powerful implosions, one type of implosion is termed “inertial cavitation,” a phenomenon which can destroy propellers and water pipes. The implosion also causes compression which can instantly generate enormous heat signatures. Continuously occurring inertial cavitation will, over time, destroy metal by the continuous blasts of heat energy which eventually melts the metal away. Such damage looks as though the metal was chipped away.
By using an instantaneously created vacuum, air can be suddenly compressed creating super-high temperatures, and a second compression which can then cause “free air” injection into the compressed air storage tank, without running a compressor pump.
In 1936, a US Patent was granted to Bob Neal:
US Patent Number: 2,030,759 Date: 11th February 1936 Inventor: Bob Neal
Bob Neal had put the physics to work in such a way that he could use the air already inside a tank full of compressed air to keep the tank full.
The secret behind the physics has been recorded and documented in Nature.
The Pistol Shrimp hunts with the same technology
employed to re-fill a compressed air storage tank with the air
already inside the tank. An amazing video available at:
Here’s how to do it: (see drawing below).
1. Use high pressure compressed air stored in a medium sized injection tank as the “fuel” for initiation of the compression-heat cycle to take place in a small EQUALIZER, (EQT) tank cylinder;
2. Put an intake and discharge check valve on the EQT;
a. provide an intake pipe from atmosphere to the EQT intake check valve.
b. provide an output pipe from the EQT to a discharge check valve which vents to the INSIDE of the injection tank. (See system drawing below).
3. Connect a high pressure input pipe to the EQT tank, attach a control valve to time high pressure injection pulses from the injection tank into the EQT.
4. From the injection tank, connect high pressure pipe to a pressure reducing valve which is connected to the Working Compressed Air Main Tank.
The high pressure storage tank used to “charge” the equalizer tank has a much larger volume than the equalizer tank. The whole air volume of the high pressure storage tank contributes a vast amount of energy to the air in the smaller equalizer tank containing air at atmospheric pressure. When the control valve is opened suddenly, compression takes place inside the EQT, (equalizer tank), and the air inside the EQT gets very hot instantly, causing another tremendous compression to take place. HEAT causes compression. Before the heat of compression inside the EQT can cool to ambient temperature, the air is piped back into the injection tank to re-fill it and the excess can be used to keep the Main Tank re-filled through a pressure reducing valve. EQT pressure during each pulsed injection cycle is much higher than the pressure in the injection tank, which maintains a pressure much higher than the working compressed air Main Tank. Excess compressed air from the injection tank enters the working compressed air Main Tank replenishing the working compressed air supply.
The concept: Use a high pressure compressed air source to generate heat and high pressure compressed air for injection into the working compressed air Main Tank.
The one, very small, expenditure of energy to operate the equalizer cycle, after the equalizer high pressure injection air tank and the working air Main Tank are initially charged with compressed air to set-point pressure, is that the control valve will have to be powered to open and close.
Note: The frequency of the cycles can be as fast as that demonstrated by the pulse-jet engine which is using virtually the same cycle to produce a jet blast of compressed air having enough power to propel aircraft and wheeled racing vehicles.
If the equalizer injection tank air pressure was 1000 psig and the EQT (equalizer) pressure was 0 psig, then, equalizing the two pressures would raise the EQT pressure to 500 psig, because the equalizer injection tank air pressure will drop, 500psig, because of moving the EQT volume of air out of the equalizer injection tank into the EQT. At that point, and pressure, the EQT air would not go into the equalizer injection tank without being increased to a value greater than 500 psig. That circumstance is predicated upon “complete equalization,” which is discounting, or eliminating the heat created in the EQT when the equalizer injection tank air suddenly enters.
The equalizer system is used in a manner that doesn't allow complete equalization, it's called unbalanced expansion (or free expansion) for a reason. It's like anything elastic that stores potential energy, store energy, cause the energy to be released, the released energy will attempt to return, in ever decreasing cycles, to equilibrium. The cycles are waves, periodic oscillations or the overshooting of equilibrium as the unbalanced condition seeks balance, causing the tension to gradually dissipate, overshooting equilibrium in both directions until finally it comes to rest at ambient temperature and 500 psig.
The design of the EQT equalizer injection system doesn't allow enough time for “complete equalization.” When the actual pressure in the equalizer exceeds the equalizer injection tank air pressure the injection control valve has already closed.
Fill the small equalizer tank suddenly and at a certain frequency with equalizer injection tank air pressure and the heat that is instantly generated reaches extremely high temperature, as soon as the heat is generated, the heat causes another compression cycle to raise 500 psig air in the equalizer expansion zone to a pressure much higher than the equalizer injection tank air pressure. This sudden increase in EQT pressure causes all of the EQT air to blast through the EQT discharge check valve into the equalizer injection tank, and due to the Kadenacy Effect (like 2-stroke engine tuning), a suction is left behind in the EQT expansion zone that is easily filled by “free air” being sucked in through the EQT inlet check valve.
Then, the cycle is repeated by operation of the control valve. This technique uses the power of tornados and hurricanes to keep the main compressed air storage tank filled while the low pressure compressed air in the Main Tank is being used to operate air-driven machines.