Earth’s Free-For-The-Taking Inexhaustible Energy Resource
by Bruce Ham (with a lot of help from many others).
What is Earth’s free-for-the-taking inexhaustible energy resource? AIR!!!
There is approximately 5.5 Quadrillion Tons of Air surrounding the Earth. That is more air, by weight, than all of the water contained in Earth’s oceans, lakes, rivers, and streams combined.
What makes AIR an inexhaustible source of Free Energy? The SUN!!
The Sun has raised the temperature of the air from absolute zero, (-461 degrees Fahrenheit), to whatever the temperature may be at some place on Earth. (Ambient temperature). At +40 degrees Fahrenheit the Sun has put 500 degrees Fahrenheit of heat into every particle of matter in the air.
This attribute of the air we breath was discerned and economically utilized over 80 years ago.
Heat is the energy that actually provides all mechanical power for conversion into electricity. In order to get that energy there must be a temperature differential which causes nature to immediately begin an equalization process. Nature abhors unbalanced conditions, and seeks to balance temperatures and pressures. Where do the imbalances of temperature and pressure go? Into the AIR!! Back to the source.
Four knowledge-sets make it possible to tap the “Free Energy” (HEAT) in the Air, and convert that heat energy into mechanical work force, which can then be converted into electricity.
Knowledge-set One: COMPRESSION.
Knowledge-set Two: VACUUM.
Knowledge-set Three: ATOMIC HYDROGEN.
Four: COMBINING COMPRESSION - VACUUM and
Knowledge-set One: COMPRESSION.
Compression of air takes place when a large volume of air is stuffed into a small container. Jamming all of the particulate matter composing the air into a small container, drives the matter particles much closer together, which brings the magnetic fields of those particles so close together that violent interaction takes place causing a release of heat energy in order to reach equilibrium at the new pressure. This heat is an attribute of the heat energy stored in the air by the Sun.
If "free expansion" of compressed air is put to work in the right context, the attribute can be converted into an advantageous source of sheer raw brute power.
Scuba tank filling stations know all about it: when filling a heavy duty, high pressure, safety-factor-of-167%, well made, correctly maintained scuba tank TOO FAST, you had better be hiding around the corner. Scuba cylinders are hydrostatically safety tested to a pressure 1.67 (167%) (5/3) times the Maximum Available Working Pressure (MAWP) rating stamped on the tank.
For example: Scuba tank stamped pressure rating is 3300 psig, this tank would be hydrostatically tested to a pressure of 5500 psi. (1.67 x 3300 = 5511).
Hydrostatic testing measures the ability of the scuba tank to (1) expand under pressure, (2) maintain containment integrity, (3) show no signs of leaks, and (4) recover its original volume to within 10% of pre-test volume. i.e., if the cylinder volume increased 100 ml at test pressure, after test pressure is removed, the tank should recover to less than 10 ml larger volume than the pre-test volume. The MAWP should be strictly observed to prevent frequent tank expansion and contraction which causes metal fatigue, fractures, and eventual failure of the pressure vessel.
The standard engineering concepts behind pressure equalization, presently being taught in universities, is that there is no "work" done because the actual instantaneous temperature is discounted and NOT factored into the math as though there was no (heat) temperature change (Joule's first law). But that train of thought is incorrect, because ALL of the factors in the cycle are not considered. Therefore, the present focus only considers “complete equalization,” where there is no NET temperature change.
Ask anyone who has filled scuba tanks, about the concern for big temperature change. Dangerous temperature change. Temperature change caused just by moving compressed air, at ambient temperature, from a big tank into a smaller tank at ambient temperature. If the procedure is performed too quickly, there is a very real danger that the smaller tank or the valve could fail, putting life and limb in great jeopardy. Since a Scuba tank is not scored (segmented) like the old-style fragmentation grenade, the tank can only rupture. The valve on the tank could be blown off as a missile, and thereby convert the tank into a jet propelled missile until the air pressure inside the tank is reduced to a lower level.
The reason for this dangerous circumstance is based upon the characteristics of suddenly compressing air. When lightning occurs, the air through which the lightning travels is instantaneously superheated to enormously high temperature. The heat from the lightning superheats the air in close proximity, and instantaneously causes compression of the air to such a degree that the matter in the air blasts away at extreme velocities which creates a vacuum bubble, the presence of which, Nature on planet Earth abhors a vacuum, and instantly propels the matter in the surrounding air into the lightning—plasma— produced vacuum bubble with very little resistance. The matter particles rushing to fill the vacuum, exceed the speed of sound, thereby, breaking the sound barrier and causing a loud sonic BOOM. We call it thunder. The heat of the lightning causes compression of the air surrounding the high-voltage – high-heat electric plasma arc.
HEAT compresses AIR. Compressing AIR releases HEAT energy.
This phenomena, sudden compression, if properly harnessed, can release the enormous heat energy stored in the air by the Sun. This attribute will be discussed later in the “VACUUM” Knowledge-set section.
All of the heat energy used to mechanically power the compressor pump, is always lost into the surrounding atmosphere. Along with most of the heat released by the air because of compression. This is because of standard engineering configurations that discount the heat that could be captured, kept in the compressed air and used to enhance the mechanical work capacity of the compressed air, to perform work more efficiently.
80 years ago, when compressed air power systems were used extensively for hauling freight, particularly in Germany, and many other purposes, engineering text books explained the fact that all of the heat of compression is lost into the ambient atmosphere. (Engineering paradigms, at the time, intentionally WASTED the "heat of compression," in order to placate their oil cabal controllers, to make compressed air less attractive than oil as an energy source.
There are sources that can be found documenting the fact that all compression work becomes heat, and that the “compression heat” generated by the operation of mechanical devices performing the compression, does NOT directly add energy to the heat already in the air before compression, which was put there by the Sun. The Sun’s gift of heat in the atmosphere, is the true energy source behind the force of expansion. Validating sources of this fact:
1. Barnard, William N., Frank O. Ellenwood, and Clarence F. Hirshfeld. Heat-Power Engineering. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley, 1926. Vol. I: 148.
2. Chodzko, A.E. "The Two-Pipe System of Air Compression." Modern Machinery January 1899.
3. Simons, Theodore. Compressed Air. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1914. 113-123.
4. Thorkelson, H.J. Air Compression and Transmission. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1913. 6-7, 16-17.
5. Unwin, William Cawthorne. On the Development and Transmission of Power from Central Stations. London: Longmans, 1894. "Case of Isothermal Compression".
6. Warring, R.H. Pneumatic Handbook. 6th ed. Houston: Gulf Publishing Company, 1982. 50.
7. Shone, Dick. "A Different View of Compressed Air." The South African Mechanical Engineer 35 (1985).
"There is nothing abnormal to an efficiency greater than 1, when reheating is used; this will occur (regardless of pipe and other friction) whenever the temperature of reheating is higher than the temperature of compression."
Instead of throwing away the heat energy created by the operation of mechanical devices performing the compression, (electric motors; engines; compressor pumps), capture that heat, as it is released by the devices employed to cause compression, and put that heat into the compressed air storage tank in order to add that heat energy to the heat energy resident in the compressed air. In many applications, just capturing the work-energy heat used to compress air, can increase the usable work-energy of the compressed air in the storage tank to a level greater than a Coefficient of Performance (COP) of 1, 2, or even 3.
Knowledge-set Two: VACUUM.
By exploiting the knowledge of compression and comprehension of the power of a vacuum, and how to use it, the compressed air already inside a compressed air storage tank can be used to keep the storage tank full through a process that can be described as “self-refilling.”
The “sound barrier,” in actuality, is the speed that must be attained by matter, — airplane, missile, water, air — where a vacuum bubble is created in the moving matter’s wake. When the vacuum bubble forms, the matter around it rushes into the vacuum without resistance of any other matter and therefore attains super-sonic speeds. When the matter rushing into the vacuum surpasses the “sound barrier,” a sonic BOOM occurs. An IMPLOSION. This is the sequence we hear when an airplane goes super-sonic, or where a lightning arc supr-heats the surrounding air so fast that it blasts away from the heat creating a vacuum bubble and then cooler air rushes into the vacuum.
The vacuum causes very powerful implosions, one type of implosion is termed “inertial cavitation,” a phenomenon which can destroy propellers and water pipes. The implosion also causes compression which can instantly generate enormous heat signatures. Continuously occurring inertial cavitation will, over time, destroy metal by the continuous blasts of heat energy which eventually melts the metal away. To us, such damage looks as though the metal was chipped away.
By using an instantaneously created vacuum, air can be suddenly compressed creating super-high temperatures, and a second compression which can then cause “free air” injection into the compressed air storage tank, without running a compressor pump.
In 1936, a US Patent was granted to Bob Neal:
Bob Neal had put the physics to work in such a way that he could use the air already inside a tank– full of compressed air to keep the tank full.
The secret behind the physics has been recorded and documented in Nature.
The Pistol Shrimp hunts with the same technology employed to re-fill a compressed air storage tank with the air already inside the tank. An amazing video available on YouTube and at: http://www.nrgnair.com/MPT/02AIR/pistol.shrimp.htm, shows the secrets of Nature that Bob Neal exploited to design a system that made it possible to provide work energy for extremely economical propulsion of an automobile.
The atomic hydrogen process does not rely upon the combustion of hydrogen with oxygen in the air, but upon the “atomic” energy released when atomic hydrogen (H1) recombines to form the ‘normal,’ diatomic hydrogen (H2). If Nikola Tesla was right, then the energy comes from the ether.
In the ‘70s, an old English inorganic chemistry textbook, purchased from Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory salvage for 25¢, contained a halftone photo of a ‘30s-vintage atomic-hydrogen welding torch, along with some basic data. The torch shown used a high voltage welding transformer, and had no mechanism to strike the electrodes together to start the arc, because the high voltage made it unnecessary. The image also reveled how the hydrogen gas nozzle was positioned to pass H2 gas at a right angle through the electric arc. In this old textbook, it was stated at page 170, as follows:
“Langmuir (1912) discovered that hydrogen at low pressure in contact with a tungsten wire heated by an electric current is dissociated to some extent into atoms:”.... ‘This absorbs a large amount of energy, about 100 kcal per gram-molecule.” “... The atomic hydrogen formed is chemically very active. Atomic hydrogen is formed when an electric arc between tungsten electrodes is allowed to burn in hydrogen at atmospheric pressures (Fig 106).”
The text continued:
“Atomic-hydrogen blown out of the arc by a jet of molecular hydrogen across the arc, forms an intensely hot flame, capable of melting tungsten [m.Pt. 3422°C, 6192°F]. This flame obtains its heat from recombination of hydrogen [H1] atoms to H2.”
“Hydrogen being set free in a chemical reaction is often more reactive than hydrogen gas.”
“... the activity of such nascent (newborn) hydrogen, in the act of liberation from Us compounds, is due to the hydrogen being in the atomic state.”
The following is a copy of “fig. 106”:
In checking this data in a more recent Van Nostrand’s Encyclopedia of Science, at page 1311 it was stated in pertinent part:
“Hydrogen molecules dissociate to atoms endothermically at high temperatures (heat of dissociation about 103 cal/gram mole) in an electric arc, or by irradiation.” “... the hydrogen atoms recombine at the metal surface to provide heat required for welding.”
The foregoing was a surprising find in the Van Nostrand encyclopedia, additionally, in 1910, the D. Van Nostrand Company published a book by Haller and Cunningham, entitled The High Frequency Coil, (The construction of a Tesla Coil for the advanced amateur. 119 pages), so there is a record of sorts, of Van Nostrand’s association with Tesla.
An astounding amount of heat energy can be "pumped" out of the aether when "dissociated hydrogen," "Atomic Hydrogen," "H1," recombines and interacts with tungsten, (or most any other metal), in the presence of a high voltage arc.
Langmuir-measured the heat-energy release from the recombination of Atomic Hydrogen (mono-atomic) (H1), @ 109,000 calories/gram mole. See Langmuir technology Atomic Hydrogen furnace. (MPT design below).This is the potential energy resource being suppressed since the 1930's.
With this heat source technology, production of a modified ICE that runs on compressed air is suddenly extremely plausible. Bob Neal patented a compressed air technology in 1936 that he used to drive a full sized car with an ICE modified to operate on compressed air from coast to coast without ever once purchasing petroleum fuel.
Instead of using a modified ICE to provide mechanical power directly to drive wheels, diesel-electric locomotives provide an example of how to do it better.
(1) Use compressed air to operate an efficient air-motor-electric-generator-set, like the M-CAM, and make electricity,
(2) power electric traction-motors on each of the drive wheels.
With present electrolyzer technology added to what Bob Neal accomplished … it is difficult to comprehend the scope of the exploitation of these technologies.
Knowledge-set Four: COMBINING COMPRESSION - VACUUM and ATOMIC-HYDROGEN into a “Free Energy” system.